Causes and Treatment of Atherosclerosis

Atherosclerosis is one of the diseases a person with untreated hypertension might acquire. Just because hypertension cannot be cured doesn’t mean you should not guard against possible complications. What do you need to know about this illness and why do you need to see a cardiologist in Singapore?

The Risk Factors

People who have high blood pressure are at risk of developing atherosclerosis. But that’s not the only criteria. Smokers, diabetics and the obese are also more likely to develop the illness. Other factors such as high levels of cholesterol, physical inactivity coupled with unhealthy diet, alcohol abuse and low consumption of vegetables and fruits are also taken into consideration.

One important factor is the balance of the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels. LDL cholesterol is often called “bad” cholesterol because an increase will also raise the risk of development of cardiovascular diseases. When you go to Singapore to get a cardiologist opinion not only do you have to keep your cholesterol level in check, but you should watch your sugar level and blood pressure as well. If you have type 1 diabetes, a specialist might also recommend that you consult a heart doctor in Singapore for further tests. If you already have hypertension, it’s important not to miss the medication recommended by your cardiologist.

Causes of Atherosclerosis

Atherosclerosis is characterized by the buildup of fatty material called atherosclerotic plaques or atheromas. These atheromas are deposited on the walls of arteries that result in a blockage or reduction of blood flow. Healthy arteries according to cardiologists in Singapore, are supposed to be elastic and flexible. Although cardiologists cannot illustrate specifically how this condition develops, one known cause of atherosclerosis are the injuries to the artery walls. Injuries may be caused by unchecked blood pressure, high cholesterol and high blood sugar, high levels of triglycerides, infections from bacteria or viruses.

When the artery wall is damaged, they send signals to the white blood cells to repair the damage. The white blood cells, which are made up of T cells and monocytes, attach themselves to the injured wall and become foam cells. The foam cells, however, collect cholesterol and fats so that the muscles in the damaged wall can be repaired. When these accumulate over time, they become atheromas. These atheromas could block the arteries and even split and start a blood clot. Don’t wait for complications or a heart attack before you visit your cardiologist.

Three Types of Lesions

Atherosclerosis is just one type arteriosclerosis. Your heart doctor in Singapore might use the two terms interchangeably, but there are marked differences between the two. Arteriosclerosis is divided into three types based on the location of the lesions.

1. Atherosclerosis is commonly found in medium and large arteries. The arteries have plaque buildup which block or slow down the normal flow of blood. The plaques are caused by an injury to the artery walls.

2. Arteriosclerosis comes from the words “arterio” which means arteries and “sclerosis” or hardening. This is a condition marked by the hardening of the arterioles which damage the artery by making it less elastic and thicker. The arterioles are small arteries usually found in the organs. Arteriosclerosis is common among people suffering from diabetes and/or hypertension. The most affected organ is usually the kidney so don’t be surprised if your doctor refers you to a cardiologist if you have diabetes.

3. Moenckberg Medical Calcific Sclerosis manifest in small and medium arteries. The culprit is the buildup of calcium deposits in the arteries which make the opening stiff. The arteries do not necessarily become narrow, however. Some heart doctors in Singapore also consider this harmless. This condition is also uncommon among people younger than 50 years old.

Arteriosclerosis Sub-types

1. Hyperplastic Type affects the lumen. It is usually caused by hypertension and occurs together with fibrinoid necrosis of the arterial intima and media. When the condition is not given proper care from a cardiologist, it could lead to ischaemia and even kidney failure.

2. Hyaline Type is the thickening of the arteriole walls because of the accumulation of pinkish materials. The walls become harder as a result of the deposits. Those at risk of developing this condition usually have hypertension and diabetes. In other cases, this could be the result of calcineurin inhibitor drugs.

Symptoms of Atherosclerosis

You need to consult the best cardiologist nearest you if you experience the following symptoms:

    1. Chest pain
    2. Numbness in your legs or arms
    3. Weakness in your legs or arms
    4. Changes in vision
    5. Drooping facial muscles
    6. Difficulty speaking
    7. Pain in your legs when walking

If you have a pre-existing conditions such as hypertension, diabetes and other cardiovascular diseases, you need to see your cardiologist regularly for check-up, blood tests and general heart screening procedures. Your daily medication will help reduce the likelihood of developing complications in the future including atherosclerosis.

Complications of Atherosclerosis

If left untreated, atherosclerosis can lead to carotid artery disease, coronary artery disease, peripheral artery disease, aneurysms, and chronic kidney disease.

The heart doctor will perform a general check-up to determine the best treatment program for you. You will be required to undergo some of the following procedures: blood tests, electrocardiogram, stress test, Doppler ultrasound, ankle-brachial index, cardiac catheterization, angiogram, CT scan, and magnetic resonance angiography.

Treatment of Atherosclerosis

Treatment of the condition may be in the form of medication or surgical procedures. The progress or damage to the arteries will have to be assessed by various specialists and not just your cardiologist. If you have a pre-existing condition other than hypertension, you will also have to treat the symptoms of those conditions. Medications for lowering cholesterol levels will also be recommended. Other medicines might include the following: Beta-blockers, anti-platelet, calcium channel blockers, and diuretics.

Surgical procedure is usually done by a heart surgeon. The following might be recommended by the heart surgeon after a heart screening or when the condition of your heart and blood vessels need to be assessed: bypass surgery, angioplasty, stent replacement, fibrinolytic therapy, and endarterectomy.


How to Deal with Convulsive Seizure


Witnessing a seizure is frightening how much more if you have someone you love enduring it. Seizures are sudden. There are many types of seizures – generalized and focal. Under the generalized seizure, there is convulsive. In convulsive seizure, it usually affects the entire body. If your loved one has this type of seizure, it is characterized by violent shaking and loss of consciousness.

The seizures stay for two to three minutes and most times, it will end on its own. Knowing this, what do you do when your child starts to jerk or shake? You have to know how to deal with it. Although it is frightening to see, it is not a medical emergency. The good news is that once it stopped, the child will recover and the breathing will go back to normal.

What will you do then? Here’s a guide:

Stay calm

Of course the sight of your kid jerking or shaking is terrifying and alarming but it is important that you remain calm. Do not panic because it can make things worse.

Look around

If an episode started, you have to make sure that the environment is safe. Look around and if you think he/she is in a dangerous place, find a clearing or safe place. If he/she is in a safe place, the least thing that you can do is to move sharp objects far away from him/her.


It is excruciating to see but you have to deal with it and stay until it passed. Your kid should know that you are there. If he/she doesn’t collapse immediately, guide him/her from danger.

Cushion the head

If he/she collapsed, you have to put cushion on his/her head. If cushion is not available, at least find something soft.

Let him/her be

Other parents think that holding a patient down is effective in calming but that won’t help at all. Just let him/her be. Do not hold him/her down when the jerking or shaking starts. Do not attempt to put anything on his/her mouth too.

Check time

It is crucial that you check the time when the convulsion started and check again after it calms down. It should be at least three to five minutes. Any more than that, you have to call an ambulance.

Put him/her in recovery position

After the seizure stopped, make sure to put him/her into recovery position then check if the breathing is normal. If the breathing is not normal, it is time that you call an ambulance.

For more information, you can ask your paediatricians. There are many specialists here in Singapore do not worry.


How to Help a Person Who’s Having a Seizure


Seizures are sudden and it can affect even young children. Seizures refer to momentary changes in the child’s movement, behaviour, sensation and consciousness. It is primarily caused by irregular chemical and electrical changes in the child’s brain. There are two kinds of seizures to include generalized seizures (that affects the entire brain) and focal seizures (that begins in one particular part of the child’s brain).

Under the common generalized seizures, there are two forms – convulsive and absence seizures. If your kid is diagnosed with convulsive seizures, there are things that you have to know about it. When you speak of convulsive seizures, it covers the entire body. This is the most dramatic and common seizure of them all because of its violent jerking movements.

Note that this seizure only lasts up to three to five minutes which makes it non-threatening. However, episodes more than five minutes could be serious. You have to time each episode and report to the doctor if it exceeds more than five minutes. Calling an ambulance here in Singapore is not hard.  When seizures begin, you have to be calm. Although being calm is challenging because the sight of your shaking child is frightening to look at, it is best that you keep your composure for the sake of your kid.

He/she will collapse and the least thing that you can do is to make sure that the surroundings are free from sharp objects that can harm him/her. Do not forget to put cushion on his/her head to protect it. Other parents hold down the child or put something in the mouth but that is not the best thing to do. Just let the episode pass calmly.

After five minutes and you see that the jolting or jerking stopped, it is time to act. You should be familiar with recovery position. Here’s the step by step instructions to recovery position:

  • Kneel on the floor: Be sure to be on one side of the victim after jolting stopped in a kneeling position.
  • Secure the arm: The arm that is nearest you should be bent at the elbow (make sure that the hand is facing upward).
  • Pick the other hand: Now you go to his/her other hand. Pick it up with your palm against his/her palm and place it to his/her opposite cheek.
  • Reach for the knee: The other hand should reach the person’s knee (remember it should be the farthest) and pull it so leg is bent. Pull the knee towards you. The knee should be moved closer to you. It should be relaxing on the floor.
  • Raise the chin: You are almost there. Make sure that the chin is tilted as it can help with the breathing.


Tips for Choosing the Right Gym

There are a lot of Singaporeans now who are conscious about their body and their health. Exercising is in fact supported by Singapore’s HPB (Health Promotion Board). With this, many health clubs or gyms are sprouting. Expansion or establishing of new gyms is noted here. This is a good sign because this means that more Singaporeans are thinking about healthy living.


It is important that you find time to go to the gym or health club because it is part of health and fitness. There are many benefits of sweating or working out. The issue here is more on choosing the right gym for you. You should find a gym that meets your expectations and needs. You have to look for a place that you are comfortable. Here are some tips that you can consider when choosing the right gym:


The first thing that you should consider is the location of the オンラインカジノ日本 gym or health club. You are eyeing a 45 minute workout session but getting there will take you about 2 hours. That is not ideal. You should look for a gym or health club that is either close to home or to your workplace.


You also need to check the price. There are people who are conscious of the price. Gyms or health clubs are either cheap or very expensive. You have to ask the reception area about the packages, discounts and other freebies.



Before scouting for a place, you have to think about your ideal hours. Do you plan to work out before or after your work? You also need to think about the holiday and the weekend schedules. The hours should be thought a lot.


It is important for a gym or health club to be clean. You should look at the bathroom, floors and the corners. If it is clean, that will do. You will notice if the gym is clean or not. If it is not, you should proceed looking for another one.


It is also crucial for a gym to be equipped with everything. You should tour around the gym and see if their equipment is new or sturdy. The quality should be considered. If you want, you can ask the club to furnish you with a copy of class schedules.

Do not commit to a long membership. If there is a need to try each one of them to find the right one, you should do it. If you consider the tips mentioned above, you will surely find the right one in no time. Work out is fun if you do it with friends and family. So, why not invite some friends and family? Healthy lifestyle should be a habit and it should be collective.